Today I learned a lot about the settlements in New France or what is now Québec. I will share my findings in the following article. My husband’s earliest ancestor in Canada was part of the Caignan-Saliéres Regiment and his wife a “filles du Roi¨
Since 1641, New France lives under constant threat of the Iroquois. Receiving Bishop Laval day in Versailles, Louis XIV promises to help militarily New France.
A regiment of the royal army had taken part in all the wars of the monarchy for more than twenty years , and was covered with glory in fighting the Turks . It was the Carignan Regiment .
The Carignan Regiment was raised in 1642 by Thomas Francis of Savoy, Prince of Carignan . According to the dictionary of Jean Cournoyer ( little John ), Carignan was the French form of Carignano, city of the province of Turin in Italy.
In 1665 the king granted an important aid in the defense of the colony and sent 1,300 soldiers from the Regiment de Carignan-Salières to quell the Iroquois. On 18 June 1665, the first contingent of the Regiment of Carignan- Salières ( so named because it is commanded by Colonel Salières) landed at Quebec . It includes 20 companies consisted of a captain , a lieutenant, an ensign , two sergeants, three corporals, five ansepassades and 40 soldiers. The regiment is one of the leading French regiments to wear a uniform . This army is under the command of Lieutenant-General Alexander Prouville Tracy , which is mobilized in Quebec with the title of " Viceroy ".
In 1664, twelve companies left port with 600 soldiers under the order of Monsieur de Tracy. They left for the Antilles, Guyane, Martinique, Guadeloupe. Another group left for Québec the following year to join the Régiment de Carignan.
The regiment crossed France from east to west at the beginning of 1665 to be on the Atlantic coast. Twenty companies composing it, but none had its required 50 men. Others were to be recruited in the region and thus many soldiers of this regiment are Aunisiens and from Saintonge.
The 1000 men gathered will ship in La Rochelle between April 19 and May 24 on 5 vessels . A review of the troops was made in the streets of the city. Imagine the commotion 1000 men and five ships would have made in the city. Over three hundred of these men would become pioneers in New France and one of these men was my husband's ancestor. The Crossing was from La Rochelle to Québec.
All these departures, committed, military volunteers would constitute nearly 80% of the settlers arriving in New France in the seventeenth century, having left their country, carrying in their heart the ultimate image of their homeland, the towers of Saint-Nicolas, Chaine and Lanterne.
They came to engage and embark all over France, as we have seen above, in particular due to the installation of La Rochelle the Compagnie des Cent Associés and Merchant - engagistes - owners.
The eighteenth century saw pioneers from a larger number of ports, including Rochefort , Bordeaux, Rouen and Nantes who joined La Rochelle as a starting point for emigration.
Rochefort took a big place, because the need for soldiers became increasingly felt. Rochefort , founded in 1664, quickly became the point of departure of the military.
Soon it became the end of New France. France would abandon her children, and leave them with no support.
The officers of the regiment have great responsibility to introduce people to the military tactics as the erection of forts at strategic locations. Thus , a chain of fortifications were built to block the invasion route of the Iroquois along the Richelieu River : Sorel, Chambly, Contrecoeur, Vercheres, etc. The ideology that drives them is go farther.
The Régiment de Carignan-Salières faced successively the Iroquois and the Dutch of Schenectady, New York . It also launched two military expeditions in Iroquois . In 1666 , the army defeated the Iroquois and peace is restored in the region in 1667. The ensuing Treaty recognizes the sovereignty of the King of France and ensures the colony 16 years of peaceful development . Once this mission accomplished, the king wants a part of the workforce remained in New France to help the colony. He provides soldiers to establish this and grants them land on the banks of the St. Lawrence to become farmers.
Louis XIV awarded to officers and soldiers food for a year and bonuses according to their rank (one hundred pounds for soldiers and a slightly higher amount for officers ). More than 400 of them were willing to stay these soldiers, mostly single and marriageable. The massive arrival of the king's daughters, "filles de roi" between 1663 and 1673, woull restore the delicate demographic balance to the colony. These young people would help the colonize the French settlement. They would form an important part of the French Canadians ancestors.
When a soldier entered the French army, he was assigned him a nickname, according to his appearance, his business, his origin or his character. That is why we find soldiers with names like Berthiaume dit Legros, Boissonneau dit Saintonge, and of course the soldiers Sanspeur, Sanschagrin and Lavictoire. One such soldier François Guire chose La Rose as his name, his brother Sicaire opted for Laprairie. In our line some remained Boissonneau others became St-Onge.
The arrival of the Carignan Regiment ended the Iroquois threat , and the efforts of Colbert and Talon are spending a few months , the people of Quebec from 4000 to 6300.
The List of Soldiers in the Régiment of Carignan-Saliéres Maximy division were:
Bidet, Jacques (de Russel), aussi *DesRoussels
Boissard, Alexandre (Le Prince de Conty),
Boissonneau, Nicolas-Vincent ou *Vincent (Saint-Onge ou Xaintonge), (refers to his origine in France Saint-Onge or Xaintonge.
Bordeleau, Antoine (Dampierre),
Bussière, Jacques (La Verdure),
*Dompierre, Charles, (St-Martin), aussi Dampierre
Dampierre, Charles (Saint-Martin), aussi Dompierre
Dumont, Julien (La Fleur), (pas selon Jetté)
Dupuy de Lisloye, Ens. Paul
Gourdon, Jean-Baptiste (La Chasse),
Guérand, Martin (Gratte Lard),
Gugnot (Le Tambour),
Inaid, Paul (Le Provencal*aussi Inard
*Inard, Paul (Le Provençal), aussi Inaid
Lauget, Jean (Matta),
Leblan, Antoine (Jolicoeur),
Le Merle, René
Ranbeau, Mathurin (Bourjoly), *ou Renaud
*Renaud, Mathurin (Boisjoli) aussi Renou, ou Ranbeau
Ronoset, Pierre (Beaucourt), ou Rousset
*Rousset, Pierre (Beaucourt) ou Ronoset
Vignault, Paul (Laverdure), (ou Pierre Vignault?)
Vignault, Pierre (ou Paul (Laverdure)
Vignault, Paul (Laverdure), (same as Pierre Vignault?)
Vignault, Pierre (same as Paul (Laverdure)
ABRAHAM Maximy Captain
Never establishing himself in Canada, Captain Abraham Maximy was the son of Pierre- Michel Maximy. His father served under the King of France.
Abraham Maximy had a career in the army, just like his father. He was taught in the regiment of Savoy before succeeding his father as captain of that same regiment. By 1655 Abraham's father was still captain of his company and at this time he asked the King for recognition tiltles of Nobility.
When Abraham and his company arrived in Québec they were sent to Trois-Rivières where they were confined for the rest of the year.
Abraham participated in the expedition of M. Courcelles against the Mohawks in January of 1666. Thereafter, the company was restricted to Sainte-Famille, Île d' Orléans.
Maximy returned to France in the autumn of 1668.
He was re-assigned to the Mesnil company in 1669 and due to battle wounds he was appointed Captain Coy Misériac of the regiment of Piedmont in 1671.
The company bearing his name “Maximy” continued to exist at least until 1671.
Vincent-Nicolas Boissonneau dit Saintonge
Vincent-Nicolas Boissonneau was born around 1637, son of Jean Boissonneau and Jeanne Cochin, in Saint -Seurin- d'Uzet near Mortagne -sur- Gironde, diocese of Saintes in Saintonge (Charente Maritime).
Deciding to stay in New France after fighting as a soldier he married “fille du Roi”, (ward of the King) Anne Colin, on October 18th 1669 in Sainte-Famille, Île d' Orléans. She was the daughter of Nicolas Colin and Isabelle Calende, of the parish of Sainte -Croix de Sens in Champagne (according to Landry and Drouin) or Burgundy (according to Langlois ).
Anne brought goods estimated at 200 pounds and a royal donation of 50 pounds.
Living in the parish of Saint- Jean, Île d'Orléans, disaster struck on August 3rd 1678. A house fire befell them in which three of their children died. In the 1681 census, Vincent is said to have three cattle and five arpents of land. Vincent Nicolas died and was buried on the family farm in St Jean, Ile d'Orléans September 14th 1715 at almost 80 years of age . Anne followed four years later, July 28th 1719 in Saint- Jean, Île d'Orléans.